The Citadel of Salah Al-Din Al-Ayoubi Citadel
A visit to the Citadel of Salah Al-Din, which overlooks
Cairo one of towering tops of Al Mokattam Hills, evokes the memory of its great founder. The Citadel was built by Salah Al-Din in 1183 AD on the Medieval castles style. It comprises a number of important monuments including the Mosque of Soliman Pasha, the Alabaster Mosque, the 90-meter deep Bir Youssef (Joseph’s Well), the Military Museum and Al Jawhara Palace.
The Alabaster Mosque (Mosque of Mohamed Ali)
A splendid towering mosque on the north by a summit of Salah Al-Din Citadel, where it can be seen from every part of
Cairo. It is distinguished by its dome, which are 52m high, and its two minarets on the east side of the mosque, which rise 84m. It was so named “The Alabaster Mosque” because of the use of alabaster for coating its interior and exterior walls. A visitor can easily locate the mosque due to its unique position, and is one of its prominent landmarks.
Its establishment began in 1830 AD after the Ottoman style, and divided into two sections: The east section contains prayers court. It is square in shape with a high dome (21 meters in diameter and 52 meters high). Its walls are coated with Alabaster and it has gild-decorated crowns. The west section has a central court (sahn).
The Citadel Outdoor Theatre
Audiences may enjoy performances of folklore, dance, music, dramatic plays and festivals that are held outdoors in gorgeous surroundings. It is an open-air museum for Islamic antiquities throughout ages. Islamic history of
Egypt from Ayoubi period till present is narrated.
The Mosque of Amr Ibn Al-Aas
It is the first mosque built in
Egypt and the fourth in the whole world (642 AD) by Amr lbn Al Aas north of Babylon Fortress. It lies in the Fustat region. It is simple in design and represents schools of architecture from different periods. Its pillars were taken from palm trees trunks and covered with dry fronds. Renovations and extensions followed in the course of time. It’s present planning consists of a central open space surrounded by four roofed side wings the biggest of which is the Qebla with its marble pillars of different styles. Inhabiting also the oldest Islamic University, it continued to impart its message through nine centuries.
The Mosque of Ahmed Ibn Touloun
It is the third mosque built in Islamic Egypt, and lies in the district of Sayeda Zeinab. It was completed in 878 AD by Al Amir Ahmed Ibn Touloun, founder of the Touloun dynasty. It is one of the largest mosques as its area amounts to 162 x 162 meters and the dimensions of its central open space “sahn” 92 x 91 meters surrounded by open corridor. The mosque is known for its rich varied collection of gypsum ornamentation and engravings. Its minaret is unique in
Egypt as it has an outside staircase.
Al Azhar Mosque
It is the first Fatimid mosque in
Cairo, built by Jawhar Al-Sekelli commander of the armies of Al-Moez Le Din Allah, in the year 972 AD. named after Fatma Al-Zahra’a, daughter of the Prophet Mohamed. Al-Azhar is one of the earliest Islamic universities and regarded as seat of learning for students from all the Islamic countries of the world. The first lecture was given there in 975 AD. It is still regarded as the school of Imams In d leaders of political revolution and religious reform movements. Al Azhar has witnessed renovations and improvements throughout the ages. It consists of an extensive central open space “sahn” surrounded by wings. The mosque has three minarets, one of which is a twin minaret from the age of Sultan Al – Ghoureiah. AI-Azhar Library contains more than sixty thousand volumes, of which fifteen thousand are manuscripts.
School and Mosque
Located at the end of
Al-Qalaa Street (
Citadel St.), it was built by Sultan Hassan Ibn Mohamed Ibn Qalawoon in 1356 A D to be a mosque and school for the four Islamic doctrines Annexed to it is the student’s residence for which teachers and doctors were appointed. It is the pearl of Islamic architecture, and its area is 7906 meters and the height of its entrance is 38 meters, the most splendid entrance of Islamic monuments in
The Dome, Hospital and
They are located in
Al-Moez Le-Din Allah Street, at the north end of the goldsmith’s section in the Azhar district. The complex is a model of exquisite Islamic architecture especially the dome whose walls are coated with marble filled with mother-of pearl, gilded and has engraved ceiling. The ceilings are ornamented in gold. It has a marble “Mihrab” (the Niche Facing Mecca) that is unparalleled in height and its minute craftsmanship. The dome has a unique and exceptional design, it is the only one of its kind in
Egypt. School for teaching the principles of Islamic theology. It is characterized by a rarely graceful minaret because of the minute marble engravings that covers it.
Established in 519 H. in
AI-Moez Le Din Allah Street, by Al-Amer bi-Ahkam-Allah, and it goes back to the Fatimid period. Its façade is decorated with Kufi inscriptions.
Al-Nasser Mohamed Ibn Qalawoon School (Madrassa)
Established in 703 H. next to Al-Mansour Kalawoun’s dome. Its decorations in gypsum are extremely minute and beautiful.
The Mosque of Qaitbay
It was built by Sultan Qaitbay in 1474 AD, and is located between Abbassia and the Citadel. It is a jewel of Islamic architecture and art as it is distinguished by its graceful minaret, the engravings of its dome and symmetrical parts.
Al Refaie Mosque
Established (1911A.D.). t is located in
Salah Al-Din Square at the Citadel north of Sultan Hassan Mosque.
Established in 403 H, and it lies at the end of
Al-Moez Le Din Allah Street in the reign of Al-Aziz, the second Fatimid caliph. The mosque was built outside the gates of
Cairo in front of Bab Al-Futuh. In BadrAl-Gamali reign it was enlarged and became within Cairo Gates.
Barqouq Mosque and School in Al-Nahaseen
It is located in
Al-Moez Le-Din Allah Street, built by Sultan Barqouq and was established as a school for teaching the principles of Islamic theology. It is characterized by a rarely graceful minaret because of the minute marble engravings that covers it.
Mosque of Al-Saleh Talae’e
It is located near Zuweila gate and goes back to the Fatimid era. It was renovated by the Mameluk Prince Baqtomor who added a rare wooden pulpit to the mosque.
The Blue Mosque
It is located in Tibbanah Street, and it was founded by Prince Aqsunqur Al-Nassery in 1347 AD It was so named because of the splendid blue mosaic on its walls.
Bab Zuweila - one of
Cairo’s original gates - was built in 1091 AD. Rising above it today is the mosque of AI-Moayad with its twin minarets. Built in 1441 AD the mosque is regarded as the pride of the Circadian Mameluk.
Al-Sultan Al-Zaher Bebars Al-Bandaqdari Mosque
Built in 665 H. By Sultan Bebars. A model of Islamic complex mosque, renovated and restored in 928H.
Adjacent to Khan AI-Khalili is the mosque dedicated to the grandson of Prophet Mohamed, Al- Imam Al-Hussein lbn Ali. 500 years after his death, his head was brought to rest in the Fatimid mosque that preceded this structure. It is distinguished by the shrine made of pure silver, ornamented with engravings and writing in gold. It contains a collection of rare belongings of the prophet. This mosque and mausoleum is a Shi’it shrine and open only to Muslims.
Mosque of Al-Sayeda Zeinab
Named after the grand daughter of the Prophet: Zeinab, daughter of Imam Au lbn Abi Taleb. It contains her shrine.
Mosque and Shrine of Imam Al-Shafeie
Named after Abi Abdullah Mohamed lbn ldris Al-Shafe’ie, one of the leading theologists of the four religious doctrines. His shrine is one of the oldest monuments of the Ayoubi period. It is famous for its huge dome made of wood and coated with boards of lead.
Mosque and shrine of Al-Sayeda Nafissa
Named after Al-Sayeda Nafissa grand daughter of the Imam Ali lbn Abi Taleb. It contains her shrine.
Built in 1631 A.D. It is located near Ibn Tulun Mosque and named after a lady from
Located in Al-Ghoureiah district, an example of old caravan serays. It has been transformed into cultural center where artists occupy many of its rooms. It also comprises a school for handicrafts.
The Walls of
They are part of the fortifications of the city. Commander Gawhar Al-Sekelli started building them in 968 AD, then they were renovated and extended in the reign of BadrAl-Din Al-Gamali (1078). Of the remaining gates, only those of Bab Al-Futouh, Bab AI-Nasr and Bab Zuweila, Which is topped by the two minarets of AI-Mo’ayed Mosque.