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All About Egypt


Egypt is a very unique location and tourist destination as Egypt is the land of civilization, country of mysteries and the cradle of ancient civilizations. It is a prime location to see the great heritage from the ancient world created by man.
Egypt is probably one of the oldest vacation spots. Early Greeks, Romans and others went there just for fun, and to see the wonders of some of mankind's earliest triumphs.

Egypt is much more than Pyramids and monuments. It is also Red Sea scuba diving, hot night spots, luxury hotels and five star restaurants. It is romantic cruises down the Nile on festive river boats, a night at the grand opera and it is a cultural experience like none you have ever experienced. Egypt is a land bustling with life, sound, visual beauty and excitement.

More than anything else, we want you to think of Egypt as fun. For thousands of years, it has been the playground of emperors and kings, and we hope you will take the time to find out why.
Egypt is the land of the finest ancient civilizations and of the promising bright future, invites you to one of the most enjoyable trips of your life. The Egyptian civilization is one of the oldest ones in human history. Inscriptions on the various Egyptian monuments emphatically date it back to 7000 years. Situated at the crossroads of the world, it is so easy to visit Egypt.
You may enjoy, at little cost, a trip to Egypt, a trip stimulating to the mind and pleasing to the heart, amidst immortal ancient monuments dating from some of the oldest civilizations ever created by man: Paranoiac, Greek, Roman, Byzantine, early Christian and Islamic civilizations.
The history of Egypt is forever tied to the Nile. Ever since the earliest known communities settled along the Nile Valley, the River has controlled the religious economic social and political life of Egyptians for centuries.


Egypt’s broad history can be broken down into major periods:

Pharaonic times 3000-341 BC.

Creek rule (Hellenistic) 332 -30 BC.

Roman & Byzantine rule 30-638 AD.

Arab conquest & Mamlukes 641 -1517

British occupation 1882-1952.

Independent Egypt 1952 -Present.


The Land

Egypt is located in the northeastern corner of Africa and covers an area of 386,000 square miles. Only about 5% of the country is inhabited along the banks of the Nile whose course stretches over 900 miles from the Mediterranean in the North to the Sudan in the South. To the West lies Libya and to the East are the desert plateau, Red Sea and Sinai. Egypt's most fertile area is the Nile Delta. Cairo, Egypt's capital has 16 million inhabitants, and Alexandria, the country’s second largest city, has a population of 5.5 million.

The people: In 2008, Egypt's population is approximately 77 million. About 90% of Egyptians are concentrated in the fertile Nile Delta and live in 5% of the country's territory - 44% in urban areas and most in some 4,000 villages. However, during the past few years, there has been an urban migration. The Egyptians are outgoing, warm and have a distinct sense of humor. They have respect and a liking for foreigners, and a deep sense of tolerance for other races, religions and nationalities.



Egypt is located in the northeastern corner of Africa. Rectangular in shape, it covers an area of 386,000 square miles. To the West lie the Western Desert and Libya, and a desert plateau, Red Sea and Sinai, borders the East. The Sudan is on Egypt's southern border and to the North lies the Mediterranean. Only about 4 to 5 percent of the vast country is inhabited along the banks of the Nile. Below Cairo, the Nile fans out in two main branches - Rosetta on the West and Damietta on the East.
Egypt can be divided into the following parts:
The Eastern Desert: including the plateau extending from the Nile Valley to the Red Sea, and The Sinai which includes Mount Catherine, Egypt's highest mountain, reaching 8,668 feet.

The Western Desert: about 68 percent of the country's total territory. It extends from the Nile Valley to the Libyan borders, and from the Mediterranean coast to the Sudan.

The Nile Valley: Egypt's main inhabited area. This fertile valley is a strip 7 to 9 miles wide along the Nile and some 6,000 square miles in the Nile Delta. The Nile's total length in Egypt is about 900 miles.



Arabic is Egypt's official language. However, most Egyptians understand and speak English and French. In larger towns, the foreign visitors will encounter no difficulty in communicating with the people.



Approximately 85 percent of the population of Egypt is Moslems. Most of the balance, about 10 million, are Christian Orthodox who belong to the Coptic Church. In most cities in Egypt, mosques and churches can be found next to each other. There are also some synagogues since a small Jewish community still lives in Egypt.



Autumn and winter are the ideal seasons to visit Egypt when mild weather prevails; temperatures vary between 60 and 80 Fahrenheit. Evenings are cool. During April, an occasional hot sand wind blows which can make sightseeing less enjoyable. The summer months are hot, 80 - 105; however, the air is dry and humidity low. In Alexandria, on the Mediterranean, the months of December through February are rainy and cold. October to April represents the best time, with water temperatures of 60 to 70 F.

Summer:       21 Jun –  21 Sep

Autumn:        21 Sep – 21 Dec

Winter:         21 Dec – 21 Mar

Spring:          21 Mar – 21 Jun



Before the 1952 revolution, Egypt's economy depended mainly on agriculture. Since then, however, the country has developed its other natural resources, and at present Egypt exports oil, finished textiles, canned food, cars, and the Suez Canal is considered an important source of revenue as an average of 70 ships cross it daily and pay fees. . Tourism is a main part of the economy. In an effort to increase its cultivable land, the country is using new irrigation methods, and in parts of the desert new cities have been built.



The high fertility of the soil in the Nile Valley enables Egypt to grow many agricultural products, especially rice, vegetables, onion, sugar cane and fruit. Furthermore, Egypt is one of the world's main producers and exporters of long staple cotton.



Education in Egypt from primary school up till university is provided free to all Egyptians. The education system is composed of four stages - primary, preparatory, secondary, and university. Primary education is mandatory and is extended to children between the ages of six and twelve.



The basic unit of currency is the Egyptian pound divided into 100 piasters. Banknotes: 25, 50 (piasters), 1, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100 (Egyptian pounds). Silver coins: 5, 10, 20 piasters. Fluctuating exchange rate stands now approximately at one U.S. $ = 5.2 Egyptian pounds Euro = 7.9 Egyptian pounds.


Passports and Entry Visa

You must have one of the following to enter Egypt: a passport valid six months beyond your stay in Egypt; a Laissez-passer issued by the United Nations to Palestinians, refugees and stateless persons or a seaman book (excluding Taiwan). Exclusions include seaman books issued by Taiwan, or not valid for Egypt; nationals of South Africa (excluding students attending Egyptian Universities); and nationals of Libya, unless married to an Egyptian.

All official documents needed by foreigners are available at the Mogamaa, Government Office Building, at Tahrir Sq. Hours 8-1, closed Fridays.
To enter Egypt, entry visa is required for all persons.
1) A single entry visa is good for one entry into the country and is valid for one month.

2) A multiple entry visa is issued to persons expecting to exit and re­enter Egypt within a short period of time,

Entry visa are obtained from Egyptian consulates abroad. Personal application at a consulate will entail a short wait, Applications by mail take up to two weeks, be sure to send a self-addressed stamped Envelope.
You may obtain an emergency tourist visa “except some nationalities must get entry visa prior to their arrival” valid for one month at Cairo International Airport, the Port of Alexandria and all other air and sea arrival port.
Visas are not issued at land crossing. It is no longer necessary to exchange foreign currency at the port to receive an emergency tourist visa. To obtain this type of visa you must go to banks at the passports area at the port of arrival.

What to pack?

We suggest, to bring light cotton clothes in summer and woolen clothes in winter. Shorts and T-Shirts, Hats, swimming suits, Camera, Sun Glasses and Sun Oil protection is highly requested to protect from Sun. Also, do not forget your medications.

Also in Cairo and the main cities there are shops well stocked with super quality clothes and gear required by the visitors exhibited at reasonable prices. Egypt is well known for its superb cotton products sold at bargain prices.



A tourist is allowed to carry any amount of foreign currency, whether bills, travelers’

cheques, money orders, bank transfers or credit cards.

Filling in the customs declaration is essential in case of carrying money that will wholly or partly go out again or for crediting a current account.



Egypt mild climate, clear sky and sunny weather offer photographers unique opportunities for taking superb pictures. Rare antiquities of Egyptian temples, historic monuments and museums are available to take pictures for fees. But it should be observed that it is strictly prohibited to photograph military areas, telecommunications premises or public utilities such as water, power stations and dams.


Tour Guides

Tourist guides in Egypt receive advanced studies in Egyptian history. They lead tours in foreign languages (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, and Japanese). The ministry of Tourism issues a license for qualified tour guides. They area available through travel agencies..



Widespread all over Egypt are many pharmacies which sell medicine and cosmetics. These pharmacies are subject to regular working hours except some pharmacies which are open 24 hours,



Medical centers are available in Egypt through public and private hospitals are fitted with sophisticated medical equipment. The reputable, medical staff covers major specializations.



Tourist Police identified by a green armband, are on duty at the major tourist sites and hotels  They help tourist to overcome any difficulties they may encounter during their visit to Egypt. Tourist police are available at port of entry, tourist sites, hotels and airports. Police stations in all parts of Egypt.


Business Hours


Government offices are open daily from 8.30am till 2.30 pm expect on Fridays and   public holidays


- Banks open daily from 8.30 am. till 5 p.m. Weekend is Friday and Saturday.

- Bank branches, in deluxe hotels and Cairo Airport are open 24 hours.

- Foreign currency exchange offices are available in Egypt.


Egypt is known for its world class handicrafts, carpets, leather ware and jewelry. Khan El-Khalili bazaar is the country’s oldest souk “market or shopping center. Visiting Khan El-Khalili is a must where tourists can pick excellent gifts of Egyptian perfumes, herbs, spices and carved wood. The souk of Wekalet El­ Balah trades mainly in cotton ware and textiles. El-khayameia (tent makers) a traditional craft center for producing colorful tents (similar to quilt making). The camel market in Imbaba and Mohamed All St., for musical instruments. Harraneya and Kerdassa souks are famous for handicrafts specially hand woven carpets and galabiahs.

Most shops are open to the public from 9:00 a.m. till 10:00 p.m. Sales Promotions and discounted periods are is held annually in winter and summer periods (February/March and August/September).